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Stabilising Fragile States - The Tswalu Protocol Revisited

Published 28 January 2011

The recent Tswalu Dialogue on ‘The Future of Stability Operations’ used as one of its starting points the Tswalu Protocol (published in 2008), a set of principles, guidelines and choices derived from the experience of heads of state, governments, NGOs, military professionals and academics who have been at the centre of peace support missions.

Drawing on participants’ recent experiences of stabilisation operations as diverse as Somalia and Afghanistan, the Dialogue re-assessed the Protocol and concluded that, three years on, the recommended measures were as or more valid, although in several cases little or no progress had been made.

This Discussion Paper addresses the key areas in need of revision and also reproduces the original Protocol paper from 2008.


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