History and Geography is not Destiny: Poland's Lesson for Africa'.

Published 17 April 2018

Despite the absence of a state for 123 years until 1918, the horror of the Second World War when it lost 85 per cent of its capital and one-third of its population, and the trauma of the Soviet period, since 1990 Poland has become a normal country, and quickly. In so doing Poland has proven three things: First, it is possible to overcome bad geography.

The method of doing so has in part been down to an iron will, sound economic policy decisions, and high-levels of education. Second, no matter how traumatic and devastating, history is thus not necessarily destiny. And finally, third, democracy is not just about the ends, even though it provides the tool to ensure the rule of law, efficient government, fairness, freedoms and rights including sound governance and development. It is also important in terms of the means itself, the inclusive manner in which the processing of choice is conducted.

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